Type 2 Diabetes

Expert Diabetes Care

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels resulting from the body’s inability to use insulin effectively. It’s the most common form of diabetes, accounting for approximately 90-95% of all diabetes cases.

  • Insulin Resistance: T2DM primarily occurs due to insulin resistance, where cells in muscles, fat, and liver do not respond well to insulin and can’t easily take up glucose from the blood.
  • Insufficient Insulin Production: Over time, the pancreas can’t keep up with the increased demand for insulin, leading to elevated blood glucose levels.

⚠️ Risk Factors ⚠️

Several factors increase the risk of developing T2DM:

  • Genetics: Family history of diabetes.
  • Lifestyle: Poor diet, physical inactivity, and obesity.
  • Age: Risk increases with age, particularly after 45.
  • Ethnicity: Higher prevalence in African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American, and Asian American populations.
  • Health Conditions: Hypertension, high cholesterol, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

🪧 Symptoms 🪧

T2DM often develops slowly, and symptoms can be mild or absent initially:

  • Increased thirst and frequent urination.
  • Unintended weight loss.
  • Fatigue.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Slow-healing sores or frequent infections.
  • Areas of darkened skin, usually in the armpits and neck (acanthosis nigracans)

🧪 Diagnosis 🧪

  • Blood Tests: Diagnosis is typically confirmed through blood tests measuring blood sugar levels, including:
  1.   Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test.
  2.   Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
  3.   Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test.

🏊🏽‍♀️ Treatment and Management 🥙

Management of T2DM focuses on maintaining blood sugar levels within a target range through lifestyle changes and medications:

  • Diet: Emphasis on a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins.
  • Exercise: Regular physical activity, aiming for at least 150 minutes of moderate exercise per week.
  • Medications: Oral medications (e.g., metformin) and sometimes insulin therapy.
  • Monitoring: Regular blood sugar monitoring and A1C testing to track long-term control.

T2DM is a significant public health issue globally!


Prevalence: According to the CDC, nearly 12% of the U.S. population had diabetes as of 2021. This percentage increased to nearly 30% among those aged 65 and older

  • Economic Impact: The cost of managing diabetes and its complications is substantial, burdening healthcare systems worldwide.
  • Geographic Distribution: T2DM prevalence varies by region, with higher rates in urban areas and developing countries experiencing rapid lifestyle changes.

 Without proper management, T2DM can lead to serious health complications: 

  • Cardiovascular Disease: Increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Neuropathy: Nerve damage leading to pain, tingling, or loss of sensation.
  • Nephropathy: Kidney damage, potentially leading to kidney failure.
  • Retinopathy: Eye damage, increasing the risk of blindness.
  • Foot Problems: Poor circulation and nerve damage can lead to foot ulcers and infections, sometimes requiring amputation.

While some risk factors are non-modifiable, lifestyle changes can significantly reduce the risk of developing T2DM:

  • Healthy Eating: Focus on a balanced, nutritious diet low in refined sugars and saturated fats.
  • Regular Exercise: Engage in physical activities like walking, cycling, or swimming.
  • Weight Management: Maintaining a healthy weight through diet and exercise.
  • Regular Screening: Especially important for those with risk factors such as a family history of diabetes or obesity.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is manageable with the right lifestyle changes and medical care. Dr. Rivera is here to help you with early diagnosis and proactive management to improve your quality of life. We focus on providing education, prevention strategies, and support to help you take control of your health.